Presbyterian Archives Research Centre

Photo Gallery No 14 :

"New Zealand at War : 1914-1918" (Page Three)


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Unused German Feldpostkarte, c.1914-1918


"A 'Fritz' Field Post Card" - "Feldpostkarte" :

An unused German military field postcard kept as a small souvenir by Gunner Claude Moore. (Moore Collection)


After reviewing the Australian and New Zealand troops on Salisbury Plain, His Majesty, King George V  addressed them with a special message which concluded : "They will reinforce the fighting line with successes worthy of those who have made famous the name of 'ANZAC'. I shall ever watch your progress and well-being" -  From "The Outlook", Oct 1916 


NZ Convalescent Hospital, Hornchurch, England :

New Zealand soldiers by the imposing entrance gate to "Grey Towers", the New Zealand Convalescent Hospital at Hornchurch England 1917. During the Great War a large number of large privately owned stately homes and mansions were requisitioned for various military uses. (Moore Collection)

Note the distinctive jackets with white lapels which were worn by patients. One man in this group appears to have a rigid prosthetic leg while another has an eye covered with a patch.


New Zealand Grey Towers Covalescent Hospital, Hornchurch, England, 1917



New Zealand Grey Towers Covalescent Hospital, Hornchurch, England, 1917


NZ Convalescent Hospital, Hornchurch, England :

Gunner Claude Moore, taken while recuperating from an illness, outside "Grey Towers", the crenelated NZ Convalescent Hospital at Hornchurch on the outskirts of London, Dec 1917. (Moore Collection)

The high cost of upkeep, vandalism during military occupation, increased death duties, encroaching industry and urban sprawl, and changing social attitudes spelt the death knell to many great homes in the austere post war period. Built by the local brewery owner on a 50 acre park in 1876, 'Grey Towers' mansion was demolished in 1931, the site being redeveloped for suburban housing.


"What ought to be the attitude of the Church towards Germany's peace proposals? …The attitude of the majority of newspapers is well known - they breath fire and slaughter as the only path to ultimate peace, and, refusing to regard the peace proposals of Germany as in any sense sincere… but that the war shall be fought to the bitter end… the only alternative to a dictated peace is the establishment of a new era in which conference shall replace force. For if force is to rule the world after the settlement as before it, then the ultimate settlement, following the fight to the finish, must resolve itself into a question of territorial conquest and strategical advantage." - "The Outlook" Editorial on Pacifism, Dec 1916 


The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) :

A advertisement in the Presbyterian Church "Outlook" magazine for the interdenominational Young Men's Christian Association "Red Triangle Day", 1917. The YMCA undertook considerable work within New Zealand and especially overseas during the war, providing Christian based home comforts, accomodation, social and recreational facilities and entertainment, convalescent facilities, and canteens. Providing Christian based facilities and fellowship was seen as a necessary alternative to safeguard soldiers from often immoral and corrupting alternatives.


New Zealand YMCA Red TRiangle Day Advertisement, 1917



New Zealand YMCA Headquarters, London, c.1914-18


New Zealand YMCA Headquarters, London :

New Zealand inter-denominational Military Chaplains pictured on the steps of the NZ Young Men's Christian Association Headquarters in London. Although not visible in this small image, the letters "YMCA" appear in coloured lettering in the centre of the window above the door. Rev J Thomson Macky, a Presbyterian Chaplain, from whose photo album this image comes from, is standing in the doorway at left. The Chaplains are all wearing 'YMCA' triangles on their lapels.

YMCA Brockenhurst Convalescent Camp :

New Zealand soldiers pause for the camera as they carry in provisions delivered by the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) Hospital car. Again, the distinctive jackets with white lapels are evident.


YMCA Car at Brockenhurst Camp, England, c.1914-18



"Our Church is called to assist the State to weather the storm of this war. We are bound in the spirit of Christian service to help toward national efficiency. Our chief business is to strengthen the moral energy and waken the latent heroisms and loyalties of the people. We will not win through unless we are in dead earnest and make ourselves fit instruments for God's use in winning a victory of righteousness. The shame of the liquor traffic lies heavily upon us…. But pre-eminently, it is a moral sore, a source of vice and soul degradation…" - "Manifesto" of the Temperance Committee of the PCNZ, May 1917.



St Andrew's Church Wellington 'Outlook' add, 1918


"There is no need for any of then to pass a lonely Sunday in Wellington"

With commendable community spirit, St Andrew's Presbyterian Church on The Terrace in Wellington placed a series of full page advertisements in the Presbyterian Church journal "The Outlook" during 1918, encouraging "Soldiers, their Friends, and Strangers" to Sunday divine service with evening music and supper provided by the ladies.


New Zealand Army Chaplain The Rev David C Herron conducting a military funeral at a newly dug grave at Gommecourt, France, with the burial party of soldiers looking on. A total of 8 burials took place here with military funerals for two New Zealanders being conducted later the same day during wet dismal weather at the British Military Cemetery at Couin. Note the trees stripped of branches by the shell fire. (DC Herron Collection)

"Friday 26th July [1918] -

Arrived Rossignol Farm at 4am. Went back up with burial party. Got out Kerse's body and buried 8 others at Gommecourt. Rained - terrible pushing bike back. Military funeral for Dick Travis [VC, DCM, MM] and C [Charles] Kerse at Couin." (quoted from the Rev Herron's Diary)


Military Funeral, Gommecourt, France, 1918



"The message from Messines is crystallised in the picture drawn by this Irish Lieutenant, "…Today we are burying the bones of the bravest men who ever fought for the flag, in order that you may have your life and peace to enjoy it". The message from Messines comes as a direct challenge to all in this Dominion… to make New Zealand a better and brighter country "when the boys come home"…. Are we ready and willing to share in the sacrifice demanded? The first step… is the overthrow of the Drink Traffic." - "the Outlook Editorial, June 1917



New Zealand Expeditionary Force Otago Regiment Christmas Card, 1918


The New Zealand Expeditionay Force Otago Regiment's Christmas card cover, 1918, proudly printed with their theatres of war and dates of action.

An address from "The Otago Hospital & Charitable Aid Board" thanking the Owaka Presbyterian Church for voluntary assistance given during the Influenza Epidemic of 1918 :

Soldiers returning from Europe and America are widely believed to have brought the 'Spanish Influenza' to New Zealand in October 1918. This was the same influenza virus which had earlier in the year caused heavy casualties at Sling Camp at Bulford in England. By December 1918, 8,600 New Zealander's had died and in [German] Western Samoa, which New Zealand Military Forces had occupied in 1914, one in five died due to the lack of any quarantine facilities.


Otago Charitable Aid Board Influenza Epidemic Address to Owaka Presbyterian Church, 1918



"The Doom of the Drink Traffic - … brewers and publicans… ply their accursed trade in the open bar, destroying more essential food, lowering the efficiency of essential labour, monopolising much essential transport, wasting much essential money, ruining many essential soldiers, and doing to death more of the brave men who have been invalided home from the front. It is a terrible indictment… the minister of First Church, Dunedin was impelled to declare that… if by apathy the people of New Zealand failed to deal with this drink traffic, it might be said of them, as it was said of the people of Judah : "Your hands are full of blood" " - "The Outlook" Editorial July 1917



New Zealand Divisional Headquarters, Bayer Works, Leverkusen, Germany, 1919


NZ Divisional Military Headquarters, Bayer Works, Leverkusen :

Six days after the Armistice, New Zealand troops entered the Rhineland as part of the Allied Army of Occupation. In December 1919, the New Zealand Divisional Headquarters requisitioned five office buildings of the large Bayer [Bayer AG] plant at Leverkusen across the Rhine River on the outskirts of Köln [Cologne]. This photo is from a series of images taken of the Bayer Plant by Gunner Claude Moore, all being scanned from his original negatives. The Bayer works, along with Leverkusen, suffered heavy damage during World War Two bombing and incendiary raids. (Moore Collection)

"One of the four entrances to the works. The fire brigade and all equipment belonging to the firm are in this building.... For the last month I have been trotting in and out of this entrance four to five times a day. The main road and tram lines are just outside the building. This is taken from our offices in the works, Sun 5 Feb 1919."

NZ Divisional Military Headquarters, Bayer Works, Leverkusen :

"The NZ Div Headquarters (main offices of Bayers) where all the red tabs come out. The offices are gorgeous, I have never seen any so handsome. This is about the only building in Cologne that has the union Jack up. This was the factory's main offices :- in Kaiser Wilhelm Allee. Now requisitioned for Military headquarters. 1 March 1919". (Moore Collection)


New Zealand Divisional Headquarters, Bayer Works, Leverkusen, Germany, 1919



" … In modern warfare the matter of munitions must not be neglected…Our munition factory is the printing press, and the particular form of high explosive which has proved so effective in the discomfiture of the drink traffic is the little booklet 'Defeat or Victory' " - "The Outlook" Editorial July 1917



Bayer Works, Leverkusen, German, 1919


Bayer Works, Leverkusen :

"A small part of Bayer's factory Dye works. NZ Div requisitioned most of the five offices for Headquarters - Union Jack flying on DHQ in the distance. Taken from the school tower, 1 March 1919". (Moore Collection)

Bayer Works, Leverkusen :

"Another portion of Bayer's Factory, Leverkusen. The Rhine is alongside the Factory at the end of the road in the distance, 1 March 1919." (Moore Collection)


Beyer Works, Leverkusen, Germany, 1919



"…the spectacle of Russia, Japan and America fighting side by side and shoulder to shoulder is one which inspires great hope of the ultimate realisation of the splendid idea of the League of Nations to Enforce Peace." -  "The Outlook" Editorial Aug 1917



New Zealand Divisional Headquarters, Bayer Works, Leverkusen, German, 1919


NZ Divisional Military Headquarters, Bayer Works, Leverkusen :

"The school [at Leverkusen] used by the [Germans] to teach the factory boys, Engineering etc. The officers and classroom are well fitted up. There are baths in the basement and the building is heated with steam. There are several NZ Educational classes held in the class rooms. Our offices are on the bottom floor to the extreme right. I sleep in a room on the 2nd floor but on the other side. Look closely and you will see the NZ Infantry Guard in his guard box by the main entrance, 1 March 1919." (Moore Collection)

Köln [Cologne], Germany 20 March 1919:

Taken just outside the entrance to Köln Hauptbahnhof [Cologne Railway Station] prior to Gunner Claude Moore leaving for Paris. Demobilisation having already commenced, the New Zealand Divisional force at Köln was disbanded as from the 25th March 1919. A tram passes in front of the Kölner Dom [Cologne Cathedral] towering at left as a railway official enters the station at right. Of this scene all but the rather battered Cathedral were totally destroyed during World War Two bombing and incendiary raids. (Moore Collection)

Germany signed The Treaty of Versailles under protest on the 28th June 1919, the treaty terms imposing harsh penalties. With Germany's military might now limited to a defensive capability, the treaty additionally imposed a heavy economic burden of financial and material reparations including loss of territory thus hindering any ability to effectively rebuild their shattered economy. Lingering discontent and economic stagnation would provide the seeds for future discord which would ultimately lead to World War Two. The Hapsburg Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires collapsed, both faring little better from harsh treaty settlements which all but curtailed their power and territorial influence.


Cologne and Cathedral, Germany, 1919



"For the Presbyterian Church, the observance of a Day of National Prayer in connection with the war must mean a Day of National Prayer for the prohibition of the drink traffic… The Presbyterian Church the world over stands for the prohibition of the Drink Traffic as an essential to the winning of the war. The blame for the present prolongation of the terrible world conflict must largely be laid at the door of this unholy, immoral, and pro-German trade." - "The Outlook" Editorial Sept 1917



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